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Children's injuries are generally the result of falls causing damage to the skin and adjacent and subcutaneous tissues. Their importance or severity depends on how they were produced. The most frequent and also the least serious injuries are erosions, which are detachments of the superficial layers of the skin that expose small blood vessels, and as a consequence they produce capillary hemorrhage.
In the erosion small fragments of the material with which the collision has occurred may remain: grains of sand, asphalt or others. These wounds are typical of scraped knees or bare elbows. In children, accidental falls are manifested above all in the most prominent areas of the body such as the arms or legs.They usually occur while doing sports, during games in which it is necessary to run or during a bike ride or playing with the skateboard, the scooter or the skates without protectors.
To treat a wound, you must first differentiate between clean wounds, which are those in which it is clearly observed whether or not there are foreign bodies or remains of the aggressive material, and dirty wounds, where we would place the rest.
1. Incised wound. We know them by the name of cut, and it is characterized by the sharp separation of the edges. It is the typical wound produced by a broken glass or the edge of a can. These wounds tend to produce hemorrhages, because the object that penetrates the skin opens the blood vessels it finds. One of the problems that these wounds can present is that they can affect structures other than the skin, such as tendons, muscles or nerves.
2. Erosions. They are the most frequent injuries in children and also the least serious. They are detachments of the superficial layers of the skin that expose small blood vessels, and as a consequence they produce capillary hemorrhage.
The opening of the skin facilitates the penetration of microorganisms, and the causative object itself can be contaminated by germs that seep under the skin at the moment of the blow or trauma.
When the wound is not too dirty and heals properly with careful washing and the application of antiseptics, it may not cause any more problems. If infection does not occur, the wound heals new tissue grows and the fibers that join the two edges are formed. The healing time is usually one week. Depending on the type of skin, a mark or a scar may remain.
However, when infected, inflammation of the area may occur, which increases in volume, becomes very red and hurts. The accumulation of cells of the immune system and dead microorganisms leads to the formation of pus, a milky, foul-smelling discharge that oozes from the wound.
One of the maximum complications that can occur is tetanus infection, an infectious disease for which there is a vaccine and which is caused by the bacterium Clostridium tetani that causes very serious disorders of nerve functions. This bacteria can be found in many places, such as soil, plant spines or needles, iron, or objects that can easily penetrate the skin.
If the tetanus bacillus penetrates the skin, it can reproduce inside and make a toxin that spreads to the rest of the body, especially to the nerves, and that acts on muscle contractions, in a way that can cause stiffness in various parts of the body.
The best way to avoid it is give the tetanus vaccine regularly, which today is already routinely administered to all children, within child vaccination programs. Adults should be vaccinated again every 10 years. If they haven't, they should be given a dose of tetanus vaccine after getting injured.
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